Table 1.

Contributing factors of disagreement in clinical assessment

Source: Hendricson WD, Kleffner JH. Curricular and instructional implications of competency-based dental education. J Dent Educ 1998;62(2):183–96.
  1. Checkpoint ambiguity

  2. Faulty memory

  3. Incomplete coverage of dimensions

  4. Unspecified exceptions

  5. Untrained estimations of size

  6. Non-standardized aids to judgment

  7. Unspecified methods of observing

  8. Incomplete operational definition

  9. Unsystematic inspection

  10. Discrepancies in visual acuity

  11. Degrees of leniency

  12. Inadequacy of verbal definitions

  13. Inadequate communications with non-verbal examples

  14. Unrecognized ambiguities in definitions

  15. Differences in background

  16. Differences in mental processing