Table 1.

Bivariate associations between time devoted to cultural competency, population characteristics, school characteristics, and individual-level characteristics

Categories of Outcome (n)Inadequate (888)Appropriate (2421)Excessive (227)P-value1
*Underrepresented Minorities; †Federal Poverty Level
1Only p-values <.05 are reported.
Data sources: 2U.S. Census Bureau 2000; 3ADA 2002/03 survey of predoctoral dental education; 4categories designated by national evaluation team and national program office for the Pipeline initiative, 2003; 5mission statements of the fifty-six U.S. accredited dental schools, retrieved July 2004; 6ADEA survey of dental school seniors; 7N for Socially Conscious: 474 inadequate; 2388 adequate; 220 excessive.
Contextual Variables
Mean percent URM* in county2353535
Mean percent FPL† < 200%2323233
Type of school (%)3
    Public (n=1920)23707
    Private (n=1616)27676P=.007
Pipeline status (%)4
    CA Pipeline (n=473)22718
    National Pipeline (n=574)28675
    Non-Pipeline (n=2489)25687
Commitment to recruit URM (%)5
    Yes (n=909)27705
    No (n=2627)25687
Commitment to care for URM (%)5
    Yes (n=802)26677
    No (n=2734)25696
Mean total percent URM in school3121111
Total cost for first year ($)3$31,615$30,461$30,282
Mean score: school environment promotes acceptance and respect63.233.223.18P<.0001
Mean # of weeks at extramural rotation66.66.67.0
Student Variables
Gender (%)
    Male (n=2089)21718P<.0001
    Female (n=1445)31655
Age (%)
    29 years and up (n=1074)26677
    <29 years (n=2416)25696
Race (%)
    URM (n=349)36585P<.0001
    Asian/PI (n=888)31645
    White (n=2218)21727
Marital status (%)
    Married (n=1518)22708P=.0005
    Not married (n=2012)27676
Parents’ income (%)
    0–$30,000 (n=381)32654P=.0109
    $30,001–$50,000 (n=458)24706
    >$50,000 (n=2661)24697
Parents’ education (%)
    Neither parent has a college degree (n=550)23725
    At least one parent has a degree (n=2948)25687
Educational debt upon graduation (%)
    $168,000–$350,000 (n=865)30646P=.0002
    $120,000–$167,000 (n=907)23724
    $70,000–$119,000 (n=864)22698
    <$70,000 (n=846)25696
Service Orientation (mean score)3.43.33.0P<.0001
Entrepreneurial Orientation (mean score)4.34.34.2
Socially Conscious (mean score)73.02.92.7P<.0001