Table 1.

Zerhouni’s transformative notions taking health and medicine from the twentieth to the twenty-first centuries

20th Century21st Century
Treat disease when symptoms appear and normal function is lost.Intervene before symptoms appear and preserve normal function for as long as possible.
Did not understand the molecular and cellular events that lead to disease.Understand preclinical molecular events and able to detect patients at risk.
Expensive in financial and disability costs.Orders of magnitude more effective.