Table 2

Progress in genomics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)

• TP53 is most common gene in HNSCC—a gene that encodes p53 protein known to regulate the cell cycle, programmed cell death, DNA repair, and transcriptional control.
• NOTCH1 is second most common gene mutation in HNSCC and functions in blood cancer acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
• CDKN2A, PIK3CA, HRAS, and FBXW7 are other gene mutations found in HNSCC tumors and represent part of the neoplastic signature.
• Exome is the complete set of exons, or protein-encoding sequences, found in the human nuclear genome and which represent about 1% of the total DNA.