Table 1

Study design scores applied to articles chosen by students

Study DesignDesign Score
Opinion/position paper; expert review10
Case report; cross-sectional study9
Case series (<10); no controls or comparisons8
Case-control study7
Low quality, quasi-systematic review6
Retrospective cohort; treatment outcomes5
Prospective cohort/trial with controls (non-randomized)4
Systematic review/meta-analysis of observational studies3
Randomized, controlled trial (RCT)2
Systematic review/meta-analysis of RCT1
  • Note: Lower scores designate better design.