Table 3

Instruments used to measure critical thinking (CT)

Name of Instrument Author, Year DevelopedAim of InstrumentNumber of Items and FormatPsychometric TestingScoresTime to CompleteFactor Domains Measured
California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI) Facione, 1994To measure the disposition to engage problems and make decisions using CT75 questions Likert agree-disagree scaleCronbach’s alpha=0.90 overall, 0.60-0.78 for subscales in samples over 15 years; test-retest reliability >0.80Scores 10-60 for each of 7 domains; total score 70-42020-30 minutesTruth-Seeking, Open-Mindedness, Analyticity, Systematicity, Confidence, Inquisitiveness, Maturity
California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) Facione, 1990To measure CT skills including high-stakes reasoning and decision making processes34 multiple-choice items in original version; varying number of items on different versionsOverall K-R >0.72 for all versions; test-retest reliability >0.80Overall and 7 scale scores; maximum total score of 34 or 100, depending on version45-50 minutesAnalysis, Interpretation, Inference, Evaluation, Explanation, Induction, Deduction
Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) Facione, 2006Adaptation of CCTST to measure CT skills including high stakes reasoning and decision making processes in science students and practicing professionals33 multiple-choice items in original versionOverall K-R=0.78-0.82 Scale K-R=0.52-0.77Overall and 5 scale scores; maximum overall score of 33 or 100, depending on version50 minutesAnalysis, Inference, Evaluation, Deduction, Induction
Wagner Assessment Test (WAT) Wagner, 2006To assess CT80- and 40-item versions, multiple choiceAlpha=0.93 for 80 items and 0.90 for 40 itemsMaximum score of 40 or 80, depending on versionNot specifiedFact-Based Conclusions, Assumption Detection, Deduction, Fact Interpretation, Argument Strength
Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) Watson and Glaser, first developed 1925, many updatesTo measure important abilities and skills involved in CT40 items, mostly true or falseDomain alphas=0.55 to 0.83; overall alpha=0.83 (Form D) and 0.81 (Form E)Maximum overall score of 4040 minutesInference, Recognition of Assumptions, Reasoning Deductively, Interpreting Arguments, Evaluation of Arguments
Williams Critical Thinking Assessment (WCTA) Williams, 2002To measure individual facets of CT delineated by the Delphi conceptualization97 items on three combined measures, all multiple-choiceK-R=0.83, 0.89, and 0.83 for three subtestsMaximum of 41 for CT, 33 for disposition, and 23 for self-regulation40-45 minutesAnalysis, Evaluation, Inference, Interpretation, Disposition, Metacognitive or Self-Regulation
HEIghten Critical Thinking Assessment ETS, 2015To evaluate college students’ ability to demonstrate two central aspects of CT26 items, multiple-choice, select-in-passage, inline choice, and compositeCronbach’s alpha=0.58-0.83 for 5 pilot forms of test; institution-level reliability=0.86-0.99Maximum of 100%45 minutesAnalytical Skills, Synthetic Skills