Table 1

Aspects/skills, indicators, and scale of assessment instrument for shared decision making

Aspect/SkillIndicator1=inadequate2=adequate3=good0=not applicable
Information exchange
1. Content: dentist’s suggestionsSignposts available options including evidence of prognosis. Signposts own preference.
2. Content: patient contributionInvites the patient to contribute information, thoughts, ideas, suggestions, and preferences.
3. Process: checking understandingUses deliberate techniques to check patient understanding of content.
Shared decision making
4. Process: negotiate treatment planNegotiates mutually acceptable plans in partnership with patient.
5. Perceptual: mutuality/respectCreates atmosphere of mutuality/respect through patient participation and involvement in decision making.
6. Process: forward planningForward planning: what the interviewer will do; what the patient will do; when (time of next communication or appointment).
7. Process: closureClosure: summarizes session briefly and clarifies plan of care.
8. Process: final checkAsks if the patient has any further questions, concerns, or other issues.
Global communication skills
9. Process: language skillsUses appropriate language and structuring. Content is free of medical terms and jargon.
10. Process: listening skills, acknowledgingAcknowledges patient’s view and information by providing verbal encouragement, using short statements, and echoing when appropriate.
11. Perceptual: listening skills, non-interruptionDoes not interrupt.
12. Process: picking up verbal cuesPicks up verbal cues from patient; checks out and acknowledges as appropriate.
Building relationship skills
13. Process: use non-verbal communicationUses appropriate eye contact, posture, and facial expressions.
14. Process: pick up non-verbal cuesPicks up non-verbal cues from patient; checks out and acknowledges as appropriate.
15. Process: atmosphereSpends time on social talk.
16. Perceptual: respectShows respect, and avoids speaking in hostile/condescending manner.
17. Perceptual: empathyEncourages patient to express feelings.
18. Perceptual: acceptanceAccepts legitimacy of patient’s views and feelings; is not judgmental.
  • Note: Items 1 and 2 are content skills; items 5, 11, 16, 17, and 18 are perceptual skills; and the remaining items are process skills.