Table 1

Overview of survey variables and items used to determine third-year medical students’ prenatal oral health behaviors, confidence, knowledge, and attitudes

VariableDefinitionSurvey ItemClinical Practice
BehaviorPerforming behaviors specific to preventive oral health practices.With how many of your patients who are pregnant do you perform each of the following during prenatal visits?a
 Inquire if a pregnant woman has a dental home.Counsel
 Refer a woman for dental care during pregnancy.Refer
 Examine a pregnant woman’s mouth for signs of dental disease.Screen
 Discuss the importance of a healthy mouth to a pregnant woman’s overall health.Counsel
 Inquire about oral hygiene routines for pregnant women.Counsel
ConfidenceSelf-assurance about abilities to provide prenatal oral health preventive care and refer to dental home.These questions refer to your level of confidence in providing oral health education to pregnant women:b
 Counseling pregnant women about their oral health.Counsel
 Examining a pregnant woman’s mouth.Screen
 Referring a pregnant woman to a dentist.Refer
KnowledgeAbility to understand facts and information about safely treating pregnant women in the dental office.Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statement:c
 It is safe for women to have dental care during pregnancy.Safety
AttitudeOverall belief and willingness to incorporate prenatal oral health education during prenatal checkups.How willing are you to implement maternal oral health education in prenatal care visits?dWillingness
  • a Response options were on a six-point scale: 1=not yet in clinic/NA, 2=on occasion, 3=rarely, 4=some patients if indicated, 5=most patients, 6=every patient.

  • b Response options were on a five-point scale: 1=not very confident, 2=not confident, 3=somewhat confident, 4=confident, 5=very confident.

  • c Response options were on a five-point scale: 1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=not sure, 4=agree, 5=strongly agree.

  • d Response options were on a ten-point scale: 1=not willing to 5=neutral to 10=very willing.