Table 4

Risk of bias assessment in included articles

First Author, DateSelection of ParticipantsConfounding VariablesMeasurement ExposureBlinding of Outcome AssessmentsIncomplete Outcome DataSelective Outcome Reporting
Bookhan, 2005UnclearUnclearLowLowLowLow
Casap, 2011LowLowLowUnclearLowLow
Chambers, 2014UnclearLowLowLowLowLow
Cho, 2010LowUnclearHighUnclearUnclearLow
Curtis, 2008LowUnclearLowUnclearLowLow
DeSpain, 1984HighUnclearLowUnclearLowLow
Ericson, 1997LowHighLowUnclearLowLow
Friedlander, 2011LowUnclearLowUnclearLowLow
Lanning, 2011LowUnclearLowUnclearLowLow
Manogue, 1999LowHighUnclearUnclearLowLow
Mattheos, 2004UnclearHighHighUnclearUnclearLow
Mays, 2014LowLowLowLowUnclearLow
Mould, 2011HighLowUnclearLowLowLow
Nance, 2009LowLowLowLowLowLow
Pileggi, 2004HighUnclearLowHighUnclearUnclear
San Diego, 2014LowUnclearLowHighLowLow
Schönwetter, 2012LowHighLowHighLowLow
Tuncer, 2015LowLowLowUnclearLowLow
Wetherell, 1999UnclearLowHighHighUnclearUnclear
  • Note: See list of references for full source information on articles. “Date” refers to year of publication, not year of study.