Table 2.

Comparison of student, community, and school characteristics of the four income/URM status groups

Income Less Than or Equal to $50,000: URM (n=129)†Income Less Than or Equal to $50,000: Non-URM (n=637)‡Income More Than $50,000: URM (n=271)§Income More Than $50,000: Non-URM (n=2,547)††All Students (n=3,584)‡‡
Note: Percentages and means (standard deviations) are reported. Percentages and means with the same letter (a, b, c, d) are not significantly different from each other at the p=0.05 level, using an unadjusted (not accounting for clustering by school) Duncan’s multiple means test. Percentages may not total 100% because of rounding.
†n=128 for service orientation scale, n=125 for social consciousness scale, n=127 for economic orientation scale.
‡n=636 for service orientation scale, n=607 for social consciousness scale.
§n=261 for social consciousness scale.
††n=2,460 for social consciousness scale.
‡‡n=3,829 for service orientation scale, n=3,676 for social consciousness scale, n=3,829 for economic orientation scale.
Sources:
1. American Dental Association Survey of Predoctoral Education, 2007.
2. National Conference of State Legislators, 2007.
3. Adult Benefits Chart, Medicaid/SCHIP Dental Association, 2007.
4. American Community Survey, 2006.
5. American Dental Association Distribution of Dentists in the United States by Region and State, 2003.
6. Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Primary Health Care’s (BPHC) Uniform Data System, 2003.
STUDENT PREDISPOSING CHARACTERISTICS
Demographics
    Age 29 and up (%)48.1%a49.3%a29.9%b23.5%b29.5%
    Male (%)50.4%a56.2%a42.1%b55.4%a54.3%
    Father had at least some college education (%)43.4%a57.3%b79.0%c84.7%c77.9%
CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES
School Characteristics
    School type (%)
        Pipeline45.0%a32.0%b42.8%a26.7%b29.5%
            CA Pipeline (TCE)11.6%ab15.5%a7.4%b10.4%ab11.2%
            National Pipeline (RWJF)33.3%a16.5%b35.4%a16.3%b18.4%
        Non-Pipeline55.0%a68.0%b57.2%a73.3%b70.5%
    Private school (%; reference is public)49.6%abc45.2%ac55.4%b40.2%c42.6%
    URM clinical faculty (%)126.22% (30.84)a8.10% (8.02)b26.56% (30.66)a7.64% (6.19)b9.94% (13.72)
    Mean # of wks (SD) expected to serve in extramural rotations7.18 (2.85)a7.48 (3.22)a7.24 (2.86)a7.16 (3.21)a7.28 (3.19)
    Mean score (SD): school environment promotes tolerance/diversity3.23 (0.18)a3.20 (0.18)a3.20 (0.18)a3.21 (0.18)a3.21 (0.18)
    Time spent on cultural competence: mean percent (SD)
        Inadequate0.17% (0.09)a0.17% (0.08)a0.18% (0.09)a0.17% (0.08)a0.17% (0.08)
        Appropriate0.73% (0.09)a0.72% (0.10)a0.73% (0.08)a0.73% (0.09)a0.73% (0.09)
        Excessive0.10% (0.11)a0.11% (0.13)a0.10% (0.10)a0.10% (0.11)a0.10% (0.11)
    Time spent on social/behavioral determinants: mean percent (SD)
        Inadequate0.12% (0.07)a0.12% (0.06)a0.13% (0.07)b0.12% (0.05)a0.12% (0.06)
        Appropriate0.81% (0.09)a0.81% (0.10)a0.80% (0.08)a0.81% (0.09)a0.81% (0.09)
        Excessive0.07% (0.09)a0.08% (0.10)a0.07% (0.07)a0.07% (0.09)a0.07% (0.09)
    Time spent on dental public health: mean percent (SD)
        Inadequate0.14% (0.08)a0.12% (0.06)b0.15% (0.09)a0.12% (0.07)b0.13% (0.07)
        Appropriate0.74% (0.09)a0.73% (0.11)a0.74% (0.09)a0.74% (0.11)b0.74% (0.10)
        Excessive0.12% (0.11)ab0.14% (0.13)c0.12% (0.11)b0.14% (0.12)ac0.14% (0.12)
Community Characteristics
    URM legislative members in state (%)227.55% (24.34)a17.87% (10.82)b24.95% (21.91)c16.35% (10.45)b17.82% (13.21)
    Adult Medicaid benefits in state (%)3
        No coverage21.0%a9.9%b25.6%a9.9%b11.4%
        Emergency coverage30.3%ab23.2%b31.4%a25.4%ab25.6%
        Limited coverage28.6%b38.9%a22.9%b40.3%a38.4%
        Full coverage20.2%a27.9%b20.2%a24.4%ab24.6%
    URM in county (%)445.62% (21.90)a36.69% (16.41)b43.06% (21.39)a34.88% (16.69)b36.37% (17.59)
    Federal poverty level less than 200% in county: mean (SD)436.58 (9.11)a33.75 (6.51)c35.30 (7.88)b33.53 (6.34)c33.84 (6.71)
    Dentist to population of 10,000 ratio in state: mean (SD)56.56 (2.11)ab6.60 (1.28)b6.95 (2.40)c6.34 (1.22)a6.46 (1.41)
    Number of FQHCs in county: mean (SD)62.95 (2.92)a4.02 (3.54)b2.87 (2.88)a3.50 (3.27)b3.58 (3.33)
Student Graduating Characteristics
    Attitudes: mean (SD)
        Service orientation scale4.18 (0.81)a3.54 (0.88)b4.06 (0.83)a3.33 (0.83)c3.46 (0.87)
        Social consciousness scale3.27 (0.58)a3.04 (0.58)c3.18 (0.67)b2.98 (0.58)c3.02 (0.60)
        Economic orientation scale4.27 (0.84)a4.25 (0.81)a4.26 (0.83)a4.30 (0.58)a4.28 (0.76)
        Extramural clinical rotations were positive/v. positive experiences (%)66.4%a61.7%a64.2%a64.1%a63.8%
    Debt on graduation
        Amount of debt ($) after graduation (%)
            Less than $69,00018.3%a14.8%a18.6%a18.1%a17.6%
            $70,000–$119,00012.2%ab7.9%a16.1%b9.3%a9.6%
            $120,000–$167,00025.2%a23.9%a20.3%a25.8%a25.0%
            $168,000–$350,00044.4%a53.5%a44.9%a46.9%a47.8%
        Do you worry (much/v. much) about debt on graduation? (%)46.1%b58.5%a50.8%ab51.8%ab52.7%
        Participation in loan repayment program (%)11.7%ab10.3%ab15.0%a8.4%b9.3%